In the northeast region of the United States the Ophioglossaceae are represented by 12 species of Botrychium and 3 species of Ophioglossum. Botrychium includes 6 species of moonworts (subgenus Botrychium), 5 species of grapeferns (Sceptridium), and rattlesnake fern (Osmundopteris). No species is federally listed as threatened or endangered. Five species of Botrychium and all 3 species of Ophioglossum are listed as endangered, threatened or vulnerable in one or more states. All of these represent species at or near their geographic range limits. Some are probably more common than recognized because of their small size and the disappearance of the single leaf produced in a year due to herbivory.

Key words: Botrychium, conservation, Northeast U. S., Ophioglossum