In the Upper Great Lakes Region of the United States, the Ophioglossaceae are represented by 2 species of Ophioglossum and 18 species of Botrychium. In the latter there are 13 species of moonworts (subgenus Botrychium), 4 species of grapeferns (subgenus Sceptridium) and B. virginianum, the rattlesnake fern in subgenus Osmundopteris. Of these, 13 species are state-listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern. In Minnesota B. gallicomontanum, B. oneidense and B. pallidum are listed state endangered; B. lanceolatum, B. lunaria and B. rugulosum are listed as state threatened; and B. campestre, B. minganese, B. mormo and B. simplex are listed state special concern. In Wisconsin, Botrychium lunaria and B. mormo are state endangered; and B. campestre, B. minganese, B. oneidense, B. rugulosum, and B. spathulatum as state special concern. In Michigan, Botrychium acuminatum is state endangered; B. campestre, B. hesperium, B. mormo are state threatened; and B. pallidum is state special concern. Conservation measures in the Upper Great Lakes Region have varied among the agencies within the states. The similarities have been in the form of inventory, monitoring rare occurrences and identifying local distributions. Some agencies have developed protection measures by leaving buffers adjacent to rare populations. In Minnesota, various population studies of Botrychium mormo were conducted by science professionals from federal agencies. The Forest Service is conducting a 5 year study of Botrychium mormo habitat that have had some forest canopy removal. Also in Minnesota, a population viability assessment for Botrychium mormo in the three states was conducted in 1997 assessing distribution, potential threats and research needs. In Michigan, the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is developing strategies to lessen the impact of exotic species invasion that would potentially affect rare populations of the Botrychium species that occur on the dunes. Overall, information exchange across agencies and states is helping to resolve key management concerns.

Key words: Botrychium, Great Lakes, mormo, Ophioglossaceae