The genus Jaltomata, widespread in Latin America, is noteworthy because: 1) the corolla form is extremely variable among the 50 species, being rotate, tubular or campanulate, 2) flowers of most species are protogynous, exhibiting post-anthesis filament elongation immediately followed by anther dehiscence, 3) berries of most species are consumed, and 4) red floral nectar is produced by some Andean species. Although Jaltomata ranges from 40 to 2,900 m of elevation in Costa Rica where it occupies diverse habitats, botanists have recognized only a single species, J. procumbens (Cav.) J.L. Gentry in the country. Recent field work suggests that the diversity present in Costa Rica would be better reorganized as three or four species, including J. procumbens and J. repandidentata (Dunal) Hunz. Jaltomata repandidentata is uniquely characterized by heteranthery, sigmoid filaments and curved styles, but has been overlooked in Costa Rica until now. Species are delimited through the use of comparative morphology, and ribosomal ITS sequences obtained in the laboratory of Donald Les at the University of Connecticut.

Key words: Costa Rica, ITS, Jaltomata, post-anthesis filament elongation, species delimitation