The Gnaphalieae are a group of sunflowers that have their greatest diversity in Australia, South America, and Southern Africa and are represented in the Northern hemisphere by relatively few genera. The objective of this study was to reconstruct a phylogeny of the Gnaphalieae in Australia using sequence data from three chloroplast DNA sequences, the trnL intron, trnL/trnF intergenic spacer, matK and one nuclear sequence, the external transcribed spacer (ETS) of nrDNA. The primary aim was to test the monophyly of the Australian endemic subtribe Angianthinae. Results indicate that two genera, Cratystylis, and Isoetopsis should be excluded from the Gnaphalieae. Cratystylis aligns with the Plucheeae and Isoeotopsis allies with the Astereae. In most trees Pterygopappus, the only member of subtribe Loricariinae in Australia, comprises a clade that is sister to the remainder of the Australian Gnaphalieae. The base of the Australian Gnaphalieae is comprised primarily of genera of woody shrubs or subshrubs of subtribe Cassiniinae, such as Ozothamnus and Cassinia, from eastern Australia. Annual western Australian genera, such as Gnephosis and Angianthus of subtribe Angianthinae, dominate the derived clades. However, the Australasian subtribe Angianthinae is non-monophyletic, as are Australiasian members of the Cassiniinae, and the genus Myriocephalus. Nevertheless, there is general agreement between our molecular analysis and that of morphology, particularly in the terminal branches of the trees.

Key words: Angianthinae, Asteraceae, Australia, Gnaphalieae, molecular systematics, phylogeny