Coleeae, a tribe of Bignoniaceae endemic to Madagascar is characterized by cauliflory with approximately half its species exhibiting this trait. Cauliflory arises in parallel with a treelet habit and may persist with further shifts in habit. The role of scent, as well as different floral and fruit characters will be discussed in the context of the evolution of cauliflory as will the homology of different forms of cauliflory. In the Coleeae cauliflory appears to be driven by lemur dispersal and may be key to the remarkable diversity of this group.

Key words: Bignoniaceae, cauliflory, floral odor, Madagascar, pollination