GIVNISH, THOMAS J.*, J. CHRISTOPHER PIRES, SEAN W. GRAHAM, KENDRA C. MILLAM, THOMAS B. PATTERSON, TIMOTHY M. EVANS, ERIC H. ROALSON, AND KENNETH J. SYTSMA. Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta, T6G 2M7; Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, CA 91711; and Department of Botany, Hope College, Holland MI 49423. - Phylogeny of the monocotyledons based on ndhF sequence variation, with special emphasis on relationships within and among commelinoids, lilioids, and asparagoids.
Many higher-level relationships within and among major monocot
lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported in analyses based on
sequence variation in rbcL, atpB, and 18S rDNA. We attempted to
resolve some of these ambiguities by assembling a large number (ca.
200) of sequences of the large, rapidly evolving, chloroplast-encoded
ndhF gene. Parsimony analyses resolved all major clades of
monocotyledons, using Acorus as an outgroup. Within the
traditionally difficult commelinoids, several sister-group
relationships were resolved. Hanguana was sister to
Zingiberales, and the latter was fully resolved:
Zingiberaceae-Costaceae sister to Cannaceae-Marantaceae, and
Musaceae-Heliconiaceae sister to Lowiaceae-Strelitziaceae.
Dasypogonoids were closely related to Commelinales, and both were
sister to Zingiberales/Hanguana near the base of the commelinoids,
near Arecaceae. Rapateaceae was the closest relative of Poales and
allied orders; Mayacaceae was sister to Bromeliaceae. Asparagales was
resolved as the sister group to the commelinoids. Within the
asparagoids, Themidaceae was sister to a large lineage including
Agavaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Hostaceae, and Anthericaceae. Liliales was
sister to the commelinoid-asparagoid clade. Within the lilioids,
Calochortaceae and Liliaceae (both sensu Tamura) were monophyletic
sister groups. Clintonia-Medeola was sister to Liliaceae s.s.,
while Tricyrtis was sister to Calochortus. Stemonoids
formed a grade at the base of the commelinoids-asparagoids-lilioids;
the alismatids were sister to all monocots sampled, excluding
Acorus. Sequence variation in ndhF provides an additional,
powerful set of molecular data with which to explore relationships and
evolutionary patterns within the monocotyledons.
Key words: asparagoids, commelinoids, lilioids, Monocots, ndhF