Adonis amurensis is the only species traditionally known in Korea. The identity has been doubted because of its conspicuous geographical variations. This morphological and genetic study revealed that the Korean Adonis comprises three species. Morphologically A. amurensis, is well distinguished from the others by having the bifurcated main axis of pinnately compound leaves, no branch of the stem, and similar to longer sepals than petals, whereas A. pseudoamurensis having about 5 petals and the acute tip of dissected pinnae is distinguished from A. multiflora having 8 petals and the acuminate tip. Genetic variations based on 19 isozyme loci revealed that A. multiflora was distinguished from the others by Tpi, whereas A. amurensis from A. pseudoamurensis by Mdh. The least amount of genetic variability was found in A. multiflora. On the basis of chromosome number, A. ramosa which was once reported does not seem to exist in Korea.

Key words: chromosome, isozyme, Korean Adonis, morphology