We have completed an analysis of 18 genera of Campanulaceae sensu stricto based on nucleotide sequences from the chloroplast genes, rbcL and atpB, and on chloroplast genome structural mutations. The combined analyses generate a well-resolved and supported tree that has several interesting biogeographic implications. For example, the topology of the tree supports an Asian rather than a Southern Hemisphere origin of the family. The three Asian genera sampled, Codonopsis, Cyanathus and Platycodon, occur in a basal position in the tree whereas the Southern Hemisphere genera form a strongly supported derived clade. Also, Musschia, a Macronesian endemic, is linked to the Southern Hemisphere taxa. In terms of phylogenetic implications, the cpDNA tree corresponds well with the distribution of two major pollen types in the Campanulaceae but corresponds poorly with previous suggestions of intrafamilial relationships. Although major intrafamilial patterns are well supported, the relationships among the north temperate genera remain unresolved with the current cpDNA data. Therefore, we are adding data from a third chloroplast gene, matK. We will analyze all four data sets together to further resolve our phylogenetic hypotheses.

Key words: atpB, Campanulaceae, genome structure, matK, rbcL