The Neckeraceae have been placed within the Leucodontales suborder Neckerinae. Some authors have suggested a relationship of the family with Climacium, Hypnodendron, Phyllogonium and Echinodium. Our objective is to determine the phylogenetic position of the Neckeraceae within the pelurocarpous mosses using nucleotide sequences of rbcL. These sequences were determined for 10 genera of the Neckeraceae (for example Neckeropsis, Homalia, Porotrichum) and added to 30 other sequences available from exemplars of families in the Climaciineae, Leucodontineae, Pterobryineae. Cladistic analyses of 40 taxa showed that the Neckeraceae is a monophyletic group as represented by Neckera, Homalia, Homaliodendron, Porotrichum, and Neckeropsis. This clade is sister to the Lembophyllaceae, Echinodiaceae, and Myuriaceae. Basal to this large clade are exemplars of the Brachyteciaceae and Plagiotheciaceae.

Key words: mosses., Neckeraceae, pleurocarps, rbcL